Human civilization has a long history. We have been following many activities that our ancestors had constructed and they had followed. These are the valuable inheritances gifted to us from them. Such activities are known as cultures. For example, respecting the elder is the inherited activity from the ancestors. This is our culture. The culture is the product of human knowledge. Human's talent, literature, philosophy and religion and in the same way monuments, temples are the manifestation of culture. Such mainfestation are called cultural heritages. In simple words, the psychical or abstract assets either tangible or intangible the symbolize the culture are known as cultural heritage. Cultural Heritages can be tangible like monuments, temples etc. and intangible like customs, language, social rites etc.
Cultural heritages are those aspects of life which have been inherited from our ancestors that we practise and preserve and hand over to our future generation. There are some customs and traditions i.e. views and thought, values and beliefs which have been inheritide from our ancestors to us and we pass them to our future generation.
The cultural heritages include religious a place, historical places, customs, inscriptions, languages, literatures, arts, musics, folk songs, dance etc. In our country, the cultural heritages has been preserved since the Kirant period to the present time. But the rapid population growth and haphazard development and constructional activities have changed the originality of cultutal heritages.
Because of increase in encroachment on land, on religious places, increase in settlement around these places, garbage disposal and due to the lack of maintenance, the situation of cultural heritages has aggravated from bad to wrose. Younger generation were modern dress and are losing touch with their language, folk song, music, art etc.
There is cultural diversity in our country as well as physical diversity. However, our cultural diversity is losing the originality due to the imitation of western culture.
UNESCO enlist the important natural and cultural heritages of world in list of world heritage, based on their importance. Their importance, popularity and availability help them to record in the world heritage.
The attempt of UNESCO is really appreciable. It enlist the world heritage on the basis of their historical, cultural and natural sisnificance. Beauty, art and contribution to the national identify are the criteria of slection. Ten heritages (two natural heritages and eight cultural heritages) of Nepal have been include in the World Heritage lisit. The effort had started with the entrace of Sagarmatha National Park in 2039 B.S. The list of these natural and cultural heritages enlisted in World Heritage list, with the location that they are situated, given below:
|Changu Narayan Temple||Bhaktapur|
|Bouddha Nath Temple||Kathmandu|
|Kathmandu Durbar Square||Kathmandu|
|Bhaktapur Durbar Square||Bhaktapur|
|Patan Durbar Square||Lalitpur|
|Chitwan National Park||Chitwan|
|Sagarmatha National Park||Sagarmatha Zone|
Religion is the guiding principle of Neplease culture. All the religious and cultural heritages have their own religious importance. Religious and cultural heritages show specially of the society. They reflect the identify of the class they represent. Civilized society has savage and wild culture. Superstition is found in on uneducated society not in an educated one. Similary, cultural heritages show our skill, capacity and artfulness. They provide us historical identify as well as. Some of the heritages listed in the world heritage list are preserved properly. A brief introduction to these heritages is given below:
It is one of the holiest spots for hindus. It is situated about 4 k.m. east of kathmandu. The lichchhavi kings had laid Shiva Linga into this temple. They made it beautiful and silver doors. several famous temples of gods and goddesses surround the main temple. The main temple lies on the bank of the bagmati river, which is the tributary to holy Ganga river of India.
People from different castes from different places, even from abord, come to worship Lord Shiva. There is a great fair on the day of Shivaratri. The sleshmantak forest, Aryaghat and other important places surround this area. Pashupati Ksetra Bikash Kosh has been lauching programmes for its preservation.
Changu Narayan Temple is situated 4 k.m. away from Bhaktapur Durbar Square. Both Hindus and Buddhists come to worship.
The Lichchhavi kings observed Changu Narayan with great devotion and respect. The temple is rich in its structural design and architecture. There is an inscription of king Mandev at Changu Narayan Temple. This is the oldest inscription of Nepal.
A great fair is observed in the month of Magh every year. In this time, the statue of Sri Changu Narayan is given bath in the Shali river. After worship, the statue is brought to Hanumandhoka.3) Swaymbhu Nath
The word 'Swaymbhu' means 'self-created'. It is said that Swaymbhu appeared itself as a beacon of light over a flower, lotus. This chaitya is about 4 k.m. away from Kathmandu. It is also regarded as god Jyotirupa. It is also said to be about 2 thousand year old. The all-seeing eye of Lord Buddha are on the four sides of the spire bases. The Swaymbhu site is situated on a hillock about 77m high from the ground level. Various Buddhists come to worship here and they also regard the god as the creator and destroyer as well.
Lumbini lies in the south west of Terai region. This is the place of pilgrimage for Buddha. This place lies 1 k.m. west of Siddharthanagar. This is the birth place of Lord Buddha who was born in 623 B.C. Mayadevi gave birth to him on a way to her mother's home in Devdaha on the full moom day(Purnima) of Baishak. In 249 B.C. Ashok visited here and the stone pillar was erected to commemorate the birth place of Lord Buddha. The inscription on the pillar "Sakyamuni Buddha the blessed one was born here" proves us that Lumbini was the birth place of Gautam Buddha.
Kathmandu Durbar Square is situated in the heart of Kathmandu with chock full of cultural, ancient crafts, drawings and handicrafts. There is marusattal made from only one sal tree. It is also called Kastamandap. This Kastamandap was made by an artist in the period of King Laxminarsimha Malla, Afterwards, the name changed into Kathmandu. Hanumandhoka, temple of Taleju Bhawani ,temple of Panchamuki Hanuman, the temple of Kumari, the temple of Shiva Parbati, Ganesh Gaddi Baithak etc. has decorated Kathmandu Durbar Square.
This is situated at Mangalbazar of Lalitpur. The square is full of ancient places, temples and shrines or drawings and handicrafts. The durbar square has three main chowks, which are Mulchowk, Sundari Chowk and Keshav Narayan Chowk. there is also Krishna mandir made up of stone having twenty one spires. Simiilary, other artistic works of Lalitpur Durbar Square are the windows. The statue of Yog Narendra Malla, Taleju temples, Dhungedhara, ponds etc are the important places.
Bhaktapur Durbar Square contains ancient culture, craft, drawings with fifty-five windowed durbar, Sundhoka built during the regime of Malla King and the statue of Bhupendra Malla and the five storyed temple built by him. There are also the Dattatereya temple, Sundhara and ponds with artistic works which have made this city splendid. Bhaktapur Durbar Square is full of art and architecture.
Bouddhanath is an important religious place for Buddhists. It lies 7 k.m. away from north east of Kathmandu. Bouddha Chaitya has been given high importance from architectural point of view as well. Buddhist devotes come to visit this place in a large number. Four dhyani Buddha figures, in each direction, have glorified this place.
Many natural heritages are also present in Nepal. Among the natural heritages Chitwan National Park & Sagarmatha National Park were listed in World Heritage by UNESCO. They have both national as well as international importance.
It is 1st national park of Nepal. It is established in 2030 B.S. It occupies 932 sq.km of area. In 2041 B.S. it is listed in world heritage. It is extented in chitwan, parsa, makwANPur and nawalparasi. There are some endangered animals, they are as follows:
It is famous for saal trees more than 50 different types of grasses, including the elephant grass (Saccharumspp), renowed for its immense height.
It is established in 2032 B.S. It covers an area of 1148 sq.km. In 2039 B.S. it is listed in world heritage. It is extented in Khumbu Region. There also some endangered animals. They are as follows:
There are vegatation of Gobresalla, Dhupi, Bhojpatra & Guras.